Broch of Gurness

The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village on the northwest coast of Mainland Orkney in Scotland overlooking Eynhallow Sound. It is one of the most outstanding surviving examples of a later prehistoric settlement that is unique to northern Scotland.

Dates for the broch are unclear, but it is generally agreed that it was built between 200 and 100 BC - possibly on the site of an earlier settlement. The entire settlement was circled by outer defences comprising of a band of three ramparts and three ditches.

As time progressed, the broch’s defensive role decreased, until around 100 AD, after years of neglect, it was finally abandoned and its upper sections dismantled - probably to provide the building material for later houses in the area. Over the ensuing years, its walls continued to be reduced, as stone provided a valuable source of building material.

photo by The K Team

Posted 5 months ago with 900 notes
© archaicwonder


Wiesław Chrzanowski (20 December 1923 – 29 April 2012) - a Polish politician and lawyer, a member of the Polish anti-Nazi resistance organization, the Home Army, during World War II, here photographed during the Warsaw Uprising.

Posted 6 months ago with 1,530 notes

photo via wikipedia

Pope John II, who became Pope in 533, was the first to change his name upon taking the Papacy. He did so as his birth name (Mercurius) honored a Pagan god.

Posted 6 months ago with 169 notes
© historyofeurope


Robe a la Francaise 



Museum of London

Posted 6 months ago with 311 notes


Edin’s Hall Broch, also known as Odin’s Hall Broch is a 2nd century broch near Duns in the Borders of Scotland. It is one of very few brochs found in southern Scotland. It is roughly 27m in diameter.

The broch may have been built during the pre-Roman Iron Age,  during the forty-year interval from AD 100 and 140 (Pax Romana),  the two Roman occupations of southern Scotland.

Posted 6 months ago with 620 notes


3,763 plays


Chant de l’Oignon (song of the onion)

A march popular among Napoleon’s Imperial Guard.

J’aime l’oignon frît à l’huile,                        I love onion fried with oil,
J’aime l’oignon quand il est bon,    I love the onion when it’s good,
J’aime l’oignon frît à l’huile,                       I love onion fried with oil, 
J’aime l’oignon, j’aime l’oignon.    I love onion, I love onion.

Au pas camarade, au pas camarade,        Let’s charge comrades, let’s                                                                              charge comrades.

Au pas, au pas, au pas.                           Let’s charge, let’s charge, let’s charge
Au pas camarade, au pas camarade,       Let’s charge comrades, let’s charge                                                                        comrades.
Au pas, au pas, au pas.                           Let’s charge, let’s charge, let’s charge

Un seul oignon frît à l’huile,                      One onion fried with oil,
Un seul oignon nous change en lion,         One onion we change into a lion,
Un seul oignon frît à l’huile                       One onion fried with oil,
Un seul oignon nous change en lion.         One onion we change into a lion,


Mais pas d’oignons aux Autrichiens,        But no onions for the Austrians
Non pas d’oignons à tous ces chiens,       No onions for all these dogs
Mais pas d’oignons aux Autrichiens,        But no onions for the Austrians
Non pas d’oignons, non pas d’oignons.    No onions, no onions


Aimons l’oignon frît à l’huile,                    Love the onion fried with oil.
Aimons l’oignon car il est bon,                 Love the onion because it’s good,
Aimons l’oignon frît à l’huile,                    Love the onion fried with oil.
Aimons l’oignon, aimons l’oignon             Love the onion, love the onion.

Posted 7 months ago with 732 notes


July 14, 1789: A Paris mob storms the Bastille.

The storming of the Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris, was one of the key events and iconic moments of the early years of the French Revolution. When King Louis XVI ascended the throne of France in 1774, the government was deeply in debt as a result of colonial wars, and this debt worsened as France threw its support - and money - behind the American rebels in their war against the British crown. Famine was widespread, as was a general malaise, leading to the summoning of the Estates General to discuss the status of the nation. Disgruntled members of the Third Estate formed the National Assembly in June of 1789 and signed the Tennis Court Oath on June 20. When Jacques Necker, the king’s finance minister with some desire to appease the commoners with reform, was dismissed, mobs in Paris began to riot, believing that the king and royal forces meant to shut down the newly-formed National Constituent Assembly. 

They soon directed their anger at the relatively lightly guarded medieval fortress of Bastille, both a symbol of monarchical despotism and power in addition to a storage place for tens of thousands of pounds of gunpowder, which the revolutionaries intended to seize. By the early hours of July 14, a large armed mob had gathered outside the prison and prepared to storm the building. By the early afternoon, the Bastille’s military governor had surrendered the building, arms, and ammunition; he, along with other defenders of the prison, were beaten and killed by the mob, their heads raised above the crowd and paraded through the streets. 

Ninety-nine people died during the attack itself. The King, meanwhile, had been away at hunt; when he exclaimed that there had been a revolt upon learning of the fall of the Bastille, he was met with a reply from one member of the Estates-General and a social reformer: “Non, sire, c’est une révolution”. On August 26, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Posted 9 months ago with 2,203 notes


Baroness de Chalvet-Souville by Francois-Andre Vincent, 1793

This is my main documentation for a white-on-white polka dot chemise dress; however, dotted chemise a la reines don’t seem to be extremely rare! The Germans especially appear to have an affinity for them, which I will post.

Posted 9 months ago with 123 notes


Photographs of a devastated post-war Berlin in the summer of 1945.

“When Allied observers came to Germany after the war, most of them expected to find destruction on the same scale as they had witnessed in Britain during the Blitz. Even after British and American newspapers and magazines began to print pictures and descriptions of the devastation it was impossible to prepare for the sight of the real thing. Austin Robinson, for example, was sent to western Germany directly after the war on behalf of the British Ministry of Production. His description of Mainz while he was there displays his sense of shock:

That skeleton, with whole blocks level, huge areas with nothing but walls standing, factories almost completely gutted, was a picture that I know will live with me for life. One had known it intellectually without feeling it emotionally or humanly. 

British Lieutenant Philip Dark was equally apallaed by the apocalyptic vision he saw in Hamburg at the end of the war:

[W]e swung in towards the centre and started to enter a city devastated beyond all comprehension. It was more than appallaing. As far as the eye could see, square mile after square mile of empty shells of buildings with twisted girders scarecrowed in the air,  radiators of a flat jutting out from a shaft of a still-standing wall, like a crucified pterodactyl skeleton. Horrible, hideous shapes of chimneys sprouting from the frame of a wall. The whole pervaded by an atmosphere of ageless quiet… Such impressions are incomprehensible unless seen.

Berlin was “completely shattered - just piles of rubble and skeleton houses.” Between 18 and 20 million German people were rendered homeless by the destruction of their cities - that is the same as the combined prewar populations of Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. These people lived in cellars, ruins, holes in the ground - anywhere they could find a modicum of shelter. They were entirely deprived of essential servies, such as water, gas, electricity - as were millions of others across Europe.”

(Text via Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II by  Keith Lowe; photographs via)

Posted 11 months ago with 1,171 notes


“Berlin lies strewn about, Dust blows up, then a lull again… the great rubble woman will be canonized…” (Günter Grass)

Berlin, December 1948: With German cities in ruins after World War II and the country’s male population decimated, it fell to the women to clean up the rubble. The so-called “Trümmerfrauen,” or “rubble women,” worked with their bare hands and whatever tools they could find.

The Trümmerfrauen phenomenon was launched by Allied orders requiring women between the ages of 15 and 50 to report for duty. A law passed by the military government allowed local authorities to employ women in clearing rubble. Up to 80 percent of the historic centers of German cities had been destroyed by Allied bombs during the war; Liselotte Kubitza recalls emerging as an 11 year old from her shelter of three weeks to a scene of destruction in Berlin, where “[o]ne whole wall between us and the neighbouring flat had collapsed, parts of the ceiling had come down and all the windows were gone.” Once the violence ceased, unsafe buildings were torn down. Bricks and other materials were carefully sorted so they could be used again.

At one stage, it was estimated that it would take 25 years to clear the city rubble, with 42,000 workers continuously at work. Munich, Kiel and Stuttgart were the fastest; by 1949, Munich had cleared 80 percent of its rubble, and by 1952, Stuttgart had cleared 88 percent.

The post-war blockade of Berlin by the Soviets meant that not as much construction material could get through to the city. As a result, a higher number of workers had to turn to rubble clearance.

“We had to do something,” says Naß. “First and foremost because at the back of the mind you had that thought, ‘When my brother comes home, or when my husband gets home, it can’t be like this.’ And who else would do it? So the women did it together.” Physical hardship was the norm for Naß and her peers and they carried out their exhausting work with bare hands alone. “We had no hammers, no shovels, no buckets, no gloves,” she says.

The work though was a distraction from the bitter disappointment and emotional turmoil Berlin’s survivors felt. As a young woman who had grown up almost exclusively under the Third Reich, Frau Naß admits the end of the war threw all her beliefs into question: “We were totally disillusioned, because as girls we had gone through the Hitler Youth,” she says. “You have to imagine how you would react if the whole system you had been brought up in simply didn’t exist anymore. People just couldn’t grasp it.”

Read more here. (via)

Posted 11 months ago with 465 notes

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